Rabid Fox In Baldwin County Prompts Reminders To Immunize Pets – Alabama Department Of Public Health

The diagnosis of a rabid fox in the Spanish Fort area in Baldwin County has prompted public
officials to encourage pet owners to be sure their dogs, cats and ferrets are vaccinated against
the fatal disease. Charlotte Plumb, environmental supervisor with the Baldwin County Health
Department, said, “We strongly caution people not to approach stray animals, wildlife and bats.”

Rabies is a disease of all mammals, including man, and is fatal if not properly prevented by a
series of injections. The primary means of exposure is through a bite or scratch with
contaminated saliva contacting the wound. Transmission of the deadly virus also occurs if saliva
contacts a mucous membrane such as the eye or mouth.

The most consistent clinical sign of rabies in animals is an observable change from normal
behavior. Any wild animals that suddenly appear friendly, docile or approach humans should be
considered suspect of being infected, and therefore avoided. Nocturnal animals such as
raccoons and foxes that become active in the daytime should also be avoided. Several
exposures occur each year in Alabama when children or pets approach these wild animals
which have wandered into their yard.

Dr. Dee W. Jones, Associate State Public Health Veterinarian, said, “If a wild or stray animal is
found around your home, it is best to contact animal control professionals.”

Vaccination of domestic dogs, cats and ferrets not only protects the animals against rabies, but
also creates a protective buffer between wildlife rabies and humans. State law requires that
dogs, cats and ferrets remain currently vaccinated against rabies.

Source
Alabama Department of Public Health

High Doses Of Caffeine Directly Increase Muscle Power And Endurance During Relatively Low-Intensity Activity

New research shows increased muscle performance in sub-maximal activities, which in humans can range from everyday activities to running a marathon.

With no current regulations in place, the scientists from Coventry University believe their findings may have implications for the use of caffeine in sport to improve performance.

The scientists present their work at the Society for Experimental Biology Annual Meeting in Prague on Wednesday 30th June 2010.

“A very high dosage of caffeine, most likely achieved via tablets, powder or a concentrated liquid, is feasible and might prove attractive to a number of athletes wishing to improve their athletic performance”, explains lead researcher, Dr Rob James.

“A small increase in performance via caffeine could mean the difference between a gold medal in the Olympics and an also-ran”, he added.

Caffeine is not currently listed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as a banned substance at any concentration in blood or urine samples. Before 2004 WADA did set a specific level over which athletes could be banned, but this restriction was removed.

Muscle activity is divided into maximal, where the muscles are pushed to full capacity such as in sprinting or weight lifting, and sub-maximal, which covers all other activities.

A member of the team, Jason Tallis, tested the effect of caffeine on both the power output and endurance of soleus muscles (lower leg muscle) in mice, under both maximal and sub-maximal activities.

He found that a caffeine dosage of 70 ВµM enhanced power output by ~6% during both types of activity. This effect in humans is likely to be very similar, according to the researchers.

“70 ОјM caffeine concentration is the absolute maximum that can normally achieved in the blood plasma of a human, however concentrations of 20-50 ОјM are not unusual in people with high caffeine intakes”, explains Dr James.

Resultant caffeine in blood plasma (70ОјM maximum) may act at receptors on skeletal muscle causing enhanced force production. Scientists already know that ingestion of caffeine can increase athletic performance by stimulating the central nervous system.

Additionally, 70ОјM caffeine treatment increased endurance during sub-maximal activity, but significantly reduced endurance during maximal activity.

Source: Society for Experimental Biology

Certain Foreign-Born Populations In United States Have Higher Risk Of Tuberculosis

When finding and treating latent tuberculosis in the United States,
higher yields are found in foreign-born persons who have
recently entered the country from certain high-risk populations,
including individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia,
according to a study released on July 22 in JAMA.

Tuberculosis (TB) control has improved progressively over the last
years. “From 1993 to 2006, the number of
tuberculosis (TB) cases in the United States decreased by 45 percent,
from 25,107 to 13,779. This decline has occurred disproportionately
among the U.S.-born population, for whom the number of cases has
declined by 66 percent, while the number of TB cases among foreign-born
persons in the United States increased by 5 percent,” write the
authors. They continue, expanding the statistics: “In 2006, 57 percent
of all reported TB cases were among
foreign-born persons.” They continue, stating that the current TB
control strategies are not sufficiently addressing the population when
targeting TB disease and latent TB infection (LTBI).

To expand upon this, Kevin P. Cain, M.D., of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and colleagues examined observational
data collected between 2001 and 2006 related to foreign-born persons in
the U.S. to examine which populations are at higher risk for both TB
and drug-resistant TB. Over time, in the foreign born population as a
whole, the rate of TB cases decreased after entry, but still remained
higher than among U.S. born persons, even up to 20 years after arrival.
In 2006, a rate of over 100 TB cases per 100,000 recent entrants was
reported, a rate more than four times that of the native born
population.

Entrants from specific countries showed various trends. For instance,
when examining antibiotic resistance among the culture positive
entrants, isoniazid resistance was found in 20% of Vietnamese entrants,
18% of Peruvian entrants, 17% of those from the Philippines, and 16%
from China. In examining the number of TB cases, annual case rates in
individuals born in many of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa were
greater than 250 per 100,000 persons during the first two years of
entry. At the same time, persons from Central America, Eastern Europe,
the Pacific Islands, and South, East, and Central Asia had annual case
rates greater than 100 per 100,000 persons in the same amount of time.
An average of 250 individuals were diagnosed with smear-negative,
culture-positive TB disease within 3 months of entry each year. Of
these, 46% were from the Philippines or Vietnam.

The authors point out the need for directed screening efforts for the
control of TB in the United States. “With more than
37 million foreign-born persons currently living in the United States,
it is not possible to find and test all foreign-born persons for LTBI.
This study assists in targeting LTBI screening efforts by examining
risk of TB disease among subgroups of foreign-born populations. Finding
and treating LTBI among some specific groups of foreign-born persons
living in the United States is likely to provide high yield relative to
some other TB control strategies. Given current immigration patterns,
the impact of culture-enhanced overseas screening of immigrants and
refugees is likely be greatest in the Philippines and Vietnam, but may
have limited yield for most other countries of birth,” write the
authors.

They further recommend that reforms should be made to current TB
control measures: “Current strategies for TB control, as presently
implemented, are not adequate for achieving TB elimination in the near
future. TB control and elimination among foreign-born persons in the
United States will require a multifaceted approach. In the future,
preventing TB disease among legal immigrants to the United States might
best be accomplished through overseas diagnosis and treatment of LTBI
prior to immigration. The present use of a 9-month regimen for LTBI
treatment makes this strategy impractical. This strategy may be both
feasible and high yield when shorter, effective treatment regimens for
LTBI become available. Increased investment in global TB control could
also result in decreases in U.S. TB rates.”

Tuberculosis Among Foreign-Born Persons in the United States
Kevin P. Cain; Stephen R. Benoit; Carla A. Winston; William R. Mac
Kenzie
JAMA. 2008;300(4):405-412.
Click Here For Journal

Anna Sophia McKenney

Skin-like Tissue Developed From Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Dental and tissue engineering researchers at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts have harnessed the pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to generate complex, multilayer tissues that mimic human skin and the oral mucosa (the moist tissue that lines the inside of the mouth). The proof-of-concept study is published online in advance of print in Tissue Engineering Part A.

“For the first time, we have established that a single source of hESC can provide the multiple cell types needed to interact within a three-dimensional tissue model to generate complex, multilayer tissues. We are a step closer to a practical therapy to help with diseases of the skin and mouth,” said Jonathan Garlick, DDS, PhD, professor of oral and maxillofacial pathology at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and a member of the cell, molecular & developmental biology program faculty at the Sackler School of Biomedical Sciences at Tufts.

“Researchers have been seeking methods to grow skin-like tissues outside of the body using new sources of stem cells such as hESC, with the goal of advancing regenerative medicine as a new therapy to replace or repair damaged or diseased tissue. Little is known about how hESC can be developed into the multilayer tissues similar to those that line the gums, cheeks, lips, and other areas in the mouth. We used in vitro tissue engineering techniques to produce skin-like tissues that mimic the lining tissues found in the oral cavity,” said Garlick.

Using a combination of chemical nutrients and specialized surfaces for cell attachment, an hES cell line (H9) was directed to form two distinct specialized cell populations. The first population forms the surface layer (ectodermal, the precursor to epithelial tissue), while the second is found beneath the surface layer (mesenchymal).

Following the isolation and characterization of these cell populations, the researchers incorporated them into an engineered, three-dimensional tissue system where they were grown at an air-liquid interface to mimic their growth environment in the oral cavity. Within two weeks, tissues developed that were similar in structure to those constructed using mature cells derived from newborn skin, which are the current gold standard for tissue fabrication.

“These engineered tissues are remarkably similar to their human counterparts and can be used to address major concerns facing the field of stem cell biology that are related to their clinical use. We can now use these engineered tissues as ’tissue surrogates’ to begin to predict how stable and safe hESC-derived cells will be after therapeutic transplantation. Our goal is to produce functional tissues to treat oral and skin conditions, like the early stages of cancer and inflammatory disease, as well as to accelerate the healing of recalcitrant wounds,” said Garlick.

First author Kyle Hewitt is a graduate student in cell, molecular & developmental biology program at the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Science at Tufts and is a member of Garlick’s lab.

This study was supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research at the National Institutes of Health.

Garlick is also director of the Center for Integrated Tissue Engineering (CITE) at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, which is dedicated to furthering the understanding of regenerative medicine through the investigation of three-dimensional tissue models. He has written more than over 60 articles and book chapters on this and related subjects. CITE is now using hESC as a pre-clinical paradigm that now serves as as a translational modality to provide more meaningful correlations between in vitro screening assays for toxicity and efficacy and in vivo tissue outcomes in human clinical trials.

Hewitt K, Shamis Y, Carlson M, Aberdam E, Aberdam D, and Garlick J. Tissue Engineering Part A. “Three-dimensional epithelial tissues generated from human embryonic stem cells.” Published online July 6, 2009 in advance of print, doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0060

About Tufts University School of Dental Medicine

Founded in 1868, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine (TUSDM) is committed to leadership in education, patient care, research and community service. Students obtain an interdisciplinary education, integrated with medicine, with access to training in dental specialties. Clinics managed at TUSDM provide quality comprehensive care to more than 18,000 diverse individuals annually, including those requiring special needs. Nationally and internationally, the School promotes health and educational programs and researches new procedures, materials and technologies to improve oral health.

Source: Tufts University

Preventing A Second Stroke Is Focus Of Study

Rush University Medical Center is participating in a National Institutes of Health (NIH) study to determine the best course of treatment to reduce the risk of stroke patients suffering another stroke. The study will determine if aggressive treatment of stroke victims for high blood pressure and cholesterol, along with placing a stent to widen a narrowed artery in a patient’s brain, is better than intensive medical therapy alone.

The study is called the Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracrainal Stenosis or SAMMPRIS. The study is the first to look at the long-term benefits of the Wingspan stent, the only FDA approved stent designed to open clogged arteries in the brain.

“Prior to the Wingspan stent, the options for treating stroke patients were limited. Blood-thinning medications are commonly used to treat narrowing of intracranial arteries, but studies have found that stroke patients who had severe artery blockages of 70 percent or more have a 22 percent chance of having another stroke within the first year,” said Dr. Shyam Prabhakaran, section head of Cerebrovascular Disease and Neurological Critical Care at Rush.

Dr. Demetrius Lopes, neuroendovascular surgeon at Rush, was the first physician in Illinois to use the Wingspan stent. The catheterization procedure involves carefully threading a hair-like filament from a tiny incision on the inside of the thigh through the body’s arteries and veins up to the patient’s brain. After reaching the site of the blockage, the plaque-filled brain vessel is first opened using a microscopic balloon that is inflated, pressing aside the blockage. The stent is placed to hold the plaque against the artery wall and keep the blood flowing through the brain.

“Rush has the largest experience with the Wingspan stent in Chicago. The stent has been quite effective in preventing recurrent strokes in more than 100 cases,” said Lopes.

A preliminary study released last year that was funded by the NIH found that the Wingspan stent was successfully deployed in nearly all cases and significantly reduced arterial blockages in the short term. But data on the long-term benefit of the stent, compared to medical treatment alone, were inconclusive, prompting the launch of the SAMMPRIS trial.

“A randomized trial such as SAMMPRIS is one of the most powerful scientific tools to bring us definitive answers,” said Lopes. “The results from this trial will improve the management of patients at risk for stroke.”

In addition, the study will determine the effectiveness of intensive medical management of underlying conditions such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure. There has not been a landmark study looking at how the aggressive treatment of these underlying conditions can benefit stroke victims.

“This is a seminal study, one funded by the NIH and having significant implications on future management of patients with narrowed arteries in the brain,” said Prabhakaran. “It will determine whether we should be offering stenting as a primary treatment of narrowed arteries or whether medications are sufficient.”

The five-year SAMMPRIS study plans to enroll 764 patients from approximately 60 sites in the Unites States. Intensive medical therapy for all participants will consist of aspirin, clopidogrel (a blood thinner), and aggressive risk factor management primarily targeting blood pressure and cholesterol. Approximately half of the patients in the trial, selected randomly, will have a stent placed. Study participants will be evaluated by a neurologist every four months and will meet with internists who will manage the vascular risk factors.

To be eligible for this trial, patients must be between the ages of 30 and 80 years, have had a stroke or TIA within 30 days, and have stenosis (narrowing) of a major intracranial artery (blood vessel in the brain).

Rush University Medical Center
1700 W Van Buren, Ste. 250
Chicago
IL 60012
United States
rush.edu

Inadequate Sleep Leads To Behavioral Problems

A recent Finnish study suggests that children’s short sleep duration even without sleeping difficulties increases the risk for behavioral symptoms of ADHD.

During the recent decades, sleep duration has decreased in many countries; in the United States a third of children are estimated to suffer from inadequate sleep. It has been hypothesised that sleep deprivation may manifest in children as behavioral symptoms rather than as tiredness, but only few studies have investigated this hypothesis.

The researchers at the University of Helsinki and National Institute of Health and Welfare, Finland, examined whether decreased sleep leads to behavioral problems similar to those exhibited by children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

280 healthy children (146 girls and 134 boys) participated in the study. The researchers tracked the children’s sleep using parental reporting as well as actigraphs, or devices worn on the wrist to monitor sleep.

The children whose average sleep duration as measured by actigraphs was shorter than 7.7 hours had a higher hyperactivity and impulsivity score and a higher ADHD total score, but similar inattention score than those sleeping for a longer time. In multivariate statistical models, short sleep duration remained a statistically significant predictor of hyperactivity and impulsivity, and sleeping difficulties were associated with hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. There were no significant interactions between short sleep and sleeping difficulties.

“We were able to show that short sleep duration and sleeping difficulties are related to behavioral symptoms of ADHD, and we also showed that short sleep, per se, increases behavioral symptoms, regardless of the presence of sleeping difficulties”, says researcher Juulia Paavonen, MD, PhD.

“The findings suggest that maintaining adequate sleep schedules among children is likely to be important in preventing behavioral symptoms. However, even though inadequate sleep seems to owe potential to impair behaviour and performance, intervention studies are needed to confirm the causality,” Paavonen continues.

Source:
Dr. Juulia Paavonen

University of Helsinki

More Than 1,000 Patients Receive The Arthrosurface Product For The Great Toe

Arthrosurface, Inc.
(arthrosurface/), the developer of less-invasive joint
resurfacing systems, reports that more than 1,000 patients have now
received the HemiCAP(R) Great Toe Implant. “When we first introduced the
HemiCAP(R) Great Toe system we knew there was an unmet need for a better
alternative to joint fusion. Permanently limiting the mobility in the toe
joint by fusing the great toe seemed to be an unacceptable option for many
people when contrasted to the current outcomes for repair and
reconstruction in other joints,” said Steve Ek, COO.

Hallux Rigidus is a disease that affects the head of the metatarsal
often resulting in a painful and stiff first toe joint. This pain and
stiffness can severely impact patients to the point where their daily
activities become difficult and debilitating.

“For the last two years the pain in my foot got progressively worse, so
much so, that I started to change the way I walked. When I started walking
on the outside of my foot, I ended up getting neck and back pain as well,
which just made matters worse. Seven weeks after surgery I was working and,
the best part was that I didn’t have any more pain in my neck or back
either. The fact that I have no more pain and still have my movement is
just fantastic,” said one of the first patients.

Dr. Carl Hasselman, Clinical Instructor at the University of Pittsburgh
Medical Center commented, “The Arthrosurface implant is joint sparing
because much of the metatarsal phalangeal joint (MPJ) is allowed to remain
intact which is very different from all other MPJ implants on the market.
It is minimally invasive and does not affect the soft tissue structures.
The advantage to this is quicker recovery and no loss of push off strength,
which for the patient means very little time off work and a more rapid
return to normal activities.”

The HemiCAP(R) product for the great toe is another example of how this
technology can be applied to different joints throughout the body.
Originally, Arthrosurface developed the technology for use in the major
joints of the knee, hip and shoulder. Today, the great toe product has
become one of the fastest growing products in the line, showing how
flexible and adaptable this system may be used for early joint disease.

Arthrosurface, Inc.
arthrosurface/

Growing Animal Penile Erectile Tissue In Lab May Benefit Patients

In an advance that could one day enable surgeons to reconstruct and restore function to damaged or diseased penile tissue in humans, researchers at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center’s Institute for Regenerative Medicine have used tissue engineering techniques to completely replace penile erectile tissue in animals.

In the online early edition (Nov. 9-13) of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers report success using cells from rabbits to grow replacement penile erectile tissue for the animals in the laboratory. After implantation with the replacement tissue, the rabbits had normal sexual function and produced offspring. This is the most complete replacement of functional penile erectile tissue reported to date.

“Further studies are required, of course, but our results are encouraging and suggest that the technology has considerable potential for patients who need penile reconstruction,” said Anthony Atala, M.D., institute director. “Our hope is that patients with congenital abnormalities, penile cancer, traumatic injury and some cases of erectile dysfunction will benefit from this technology in the future.”

Reconstructing damaged or diseased penile erectile tissue has traditionally been a challenge because of the tissue’s unique structure and complex function. There is no replacement for this tissue that allows for normal sexual function. Various surgeries have been attempted, often multi-stage procedures that can involve a silicone penile prosthesis, but natural erectile function is generally not restored.

The Wake Forest Baptist scientists set out to solve this problem by working to engineer replacement erectile tissue in the lab. In an earlier study, also in rabbits, they engineered short segments of erectile tissue that had 50 percent of the function of native tissue. The current study attempted to improve on those results.

The Wake Forest Baptist team was the first in the world to engineer a human organ in the laboratory –bladders that have been implanted in almost 30 children and adults. Many of the same techniques used to build bladders were used in the current study.

The scientists first harvested smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, the same type of cells that line blood vessels, from the animals’ erectile tissue. These cells were multiplied in the laboratory. Using a two-step process, the cells were injected into a three-dimensional scaffold that provided support while the cells developed. As early as one month after implanting the scaffold in the animal’s penis, organized tissue with vessel structures began to form.

The cells were injected into scaffolds on two separate days, enabling them to hold almost six times as many smooth muscle cells as in the previous studies – which the scientists believe was a key to success. During an erection, it is the relaxation of smooth muscle tissue that allows an influx of blood into the penis. The relaxation is triggered by the release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells.

“Increasing the density of smooth muscle cells led to normal erectile pressures within the tissue,” said Atala, who is also a professor and chair of urology at Wake Forest Baptist.

Functional testing of the implanted tissue showed that vessel pressure within the erectile tissue was normal, that blood flowed smoothly through it, that the response to nitric oxide-induced relaxation was normal as early as one month after implantation, and that veins drained normally after erection.

When the animals with the engineered tissue mated with females, vaginal swabs contained sperm in eight of 12 instances and four of the 12 females were impregnated.

“These results are encouraging,” said Atala. “They indicate the possibility of using laboratory-engineered tissue in men who require reconstructive procedures. A lack of erectile tissue currently prevents us from restoring sexual function to these patients.”

The erectile tissue the scientists engineered is known as the corpora cavernosa penis. Two columns of this sponge-like tissue form a significant part of the penis. These structures, which are bound together with connective tissue and covered with skin, fill with blood during erection.

Co-researchers on the project were Kuo-Liang Chen, M.D., China Medical University Hospital in Taiwan, Daniel Eberli, M.D., University of Zurich, Switzerland, and James Yoo, M.D., Ph.D., with Wake Forest. Chen and Eberli were both at Wake Forest at the time the research was conducted.

Source: Karen Richardson

Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center

Bird Flu Outbreak Near Islamabad, Pakistan

A bird flu (avian flu) outbreak has occurred at a chicken farm in Sihala, near Islamabad, say Pakistani authorities. Laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of the virulent H5N1 strain.

Health officials say they have destroyed 3,600 chickens at the farm. So far, no human cases of infection have been reported in or near the infected area.

This is the third outbreak of bird flu in Pakistan since the beginning of last month.

New Nerve Cells — Even In Old Age

After birth the brain loses many nerve cells and this continues throughout life – most neurons are formed before birth, after which many excess neurons degenerate. However, there are some cells that are still capable of division in old age – in the brains of mice, at least. According to scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology in Freiburg, different types of neuronal stem cells exist that can create new neurons. While they divide continuously and create new neurons in young animals, a large proportion of the cells in older animals persist in a state of dormancy. However, the production of new cells can be reactivated, for example, through physical activity or epileptic seizures. What happens in mice could also be applicable to humans as neurons that are capable of dividing also occur in the human brain into adulthood. (Cell Stem Cell, May 7th 2010)

You can’t teach an old dog new tricks. The corresponding view that the brain loses learning and memory capacity with advancing age prevailed for a long time. However, neuronal stem cells exist in the hippocampus – a region of the brain that plays a central role in learning and memory functions – that can produce new nerve cells throughout life. It is known from tests on mice that the newly formed cells are integrated into the existing networks and play an important role in the learning capacity of animals. Nonetheless, the formation of new cells declines with age and the reasons for this were unknown up to now.

Together with colleagues from Dresden and Munich, the Freiburg researchers have now succeeded in explaining for the first time why fewer new neurons are formed in the adult mouse brain. They managed to identify different populations of neuronal stem cells, thereby demonstrating that the hippocampus has active and dormant or inactive neuronal stem cells. “In young mice, the stem cells divide four times more frequently than in older animals. However, the number of cells in older animals is only slightly lower. Therefore, neuronal stem cells do not disappear with age but are kept in reserve,” explains Verdon Taylor from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology.

The precise factors that influence the reactivation of dormant stem cells are not yet clear. The cells can, however, be stimulated to divide again. The scientists observed more newborn hippocampal neurons in physically active mice than in their inactive counterparts. “Consequently, running promotes the formation of new neurons,” says Verdon Taylor. Pathological brain activity, for example that which occurs during epileptic seizures, also triggers the division of the neuronal stem cells.

Horizontal and radial stem cells

The different stem cell populations are easy to distinguish under the microscope. The first group comprises cells which lie perpendicular to the surface of the hippocampus. Most of these radial stem cells are dormant. As opposed to this, over 80% of the cells in the group of horizontal stem cells – cells whose orientation runs parallel to the hippocampus surface – continuously form new cells; the remaining 20% are dormant but sporadically become activated. The activity of genes such as Notch, RBP-J and Sox2 is common to all of the cells.

Radial and horizontal stem cells differ not only in their arrangement, apparently they also react to different stimuli. When the animals are physically active, some radial stem cells abandon their dormant state and begin to divide, while this has little influence on the horizontal stem cells. The result is that more radial stem cells divide in active mice. The horizontal stem cells, in contrast, are also influenced by epileptic seizures.

It would appear that neuronal stem cells are not only found in the brains of mice. The presence of neurons that are formed over the course of life has also been demonstrated in the human hippocamus. Therefore, scientists suspect that different types of active and inactive stem cells also arise in the human brain. It is possible that inactive stem cells in humans can also be activated in a similar way to inactive stem cells in mice. “There are indicators that the excessive formation of new neurons plays a role in epilepsy. The use of neuronal brain stem cells in the treatment of brain injuries or degenerative diseases like Alzheimers may also be possible one day,” hopes Verdon Taylor.

Original work:

Quiescent and active hippocampal neural stem cells with distinct morphologies respond selectively to physiological and pathological stimuli and ageing
Sebastian Lugert, Onur Basak, Philip Knuckles, Ute Haussler, Klaus Fabel, Magdalena Götz, Carola A. Haas, Gerd Kempermann, Verdon Taylor, Claudio Giachino
Cell Stem Cell, May 7th 2010

Source:
Verdon Taylor

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft