Selfish DNA And The Genetic Control Of Vector-Borne Diseases

Mosquito borne diseases such as malaria and dengue cause suffering and death around the world. Malaria alone causes at least one million deaths annually, and is particularly devastating in children under the age of five. In addition to the human toll, these diseases consume vast economic resources in the very communities that can least afford it. Various approaches to controlling these diseases such as insecticides, vaccine development, and preventive medicine have had limited success. The insect vectors responsible for spread of these diseases are widespread, numerous and adapt rapidly.

Another possibility for reducing the spread of disease by these insect vectors is genetically modifying the mosquitoes. Scientists have introduced genes into mosquitoes that render them unable to carry the human pathogens they often harbor and transmit to people. However, releasing these genetically modified mosquitoes into wild populations would not change the rate of disease transmission. In order to reduce pathogen transmission, it is critical that the modified mosquitoes supplant the wild population. Population genetics tells us that this is unlikely to occur under normal conditions even if huge numbers of modified mosquitoes are released into the wild.

One way to promote the spread of anti-pathogen genes in a population is by linking them with “selfish genetic elements”. Selfish genetic elements are pieces of DNA that propagate much more rapidly in populations than other DNA. By linking the desired genes with these rapidly spreading selfish elements, researchers believe that entire populations of mosquitoes can be changed from vectors of deadly pathogens to merely annoying pests.

There are a number of naturally occurring selfish genetic elements. The most familiar of these are transposable elements, often called jumping genes, but more exotic examples include sex ratio distorters, and gamete killers. Each selfish element uses a slightly different mechanism involving clever molecular manipulations which result in the reduction of other genotypes. Recently, a synthetic form of one of these selfish elements, the Medea element, was created by researchers. This “tame” selfish element may be more tractable in the development of effectively modified mosquitoes, bringing researchers closer to the goal of reducing the transmission of pathogens by insect vectors.

To accomplish this goal, researchers working on the molecular biology of selfish DNA must combine forces with entomologists and population geneticists who study these same genes at the level of the organism or populations of organisms. This is a challenge because most individual researchers tend to interact only with others in their fields and often have only a superficial understanding and appreciation for work on other aspects of selfish genetic elements. In part this is because scientists from these different backgrounds do not often have an opportunity to interact and this hampers their ability develop fruitful collaborations.

To overcome this isolation, the organizers of this meeting are bringing together leading scientists working on this problem from different perspectives to exchange information and discuss new approaches for using selfish genetic elements to control vector-borne diseases. This kind of synthetic, cross-fertilization can lead to breakthroughs in research and advance the field by creating opportunities for new collaborations. The organizers hope to move the research forward in this field and shorten the time-line for producing a practical solution to controlling disease vectors.

Selfish DNA and the Genetic Control of Vector-Borne Diseases

WHEN: December 5-7, 2007

WHERE: National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent), Durham, NC, USA

ORGANIZERS: Fred Gould, North Carolina State University; Steven Sinkins, University of Oxford; Daniel Hartl, Harvard University

CONTACT: Kristin Jenkins, NESCent Education and Outreach, kjenkinsnescent



Sinkins, S.P. and Gould, F. 2006. Gene driven systems for insect disease vectors. Nature Reviews Genetics Vol 7:427-435.

The National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) is an NSF-funded center designed to promote synthetic research in evolutionary biology. NESCent (rhymes with “crescent”) is a collaboration between Duke University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University. More information about NESCent is available at nescent.

Kristin Jenkins
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)

Stop Smoking Services Are Reducing The UK’s Health Gap, Shows Study

Poorer people are quitting smoking in larger numbers than their better off neighbours, according to a new study.

Of the 1.5 million smokers supported by NHS stop smoking services between 2003 and 2006, researchers found that smokers from poorer areas were using these services – and successfully quitting – more often than those from more affluent communities.

They also found that the overall proportion of smokers from disadvantaged areas using these services was higher than those from more affluent parts of the country.

This shows that the NHS stop smoking services are helping to reduce inequalities in health caused by smoking, say researchers from the University of Bath’s Tobacco Control Research Group and the University of Edinburgh.

“Smoking is the leading cause of preventable ill health and death in the UK, and the single biggest cause of inequalities in health,” said Dr Linda Bauld from the University of Bath, who collaborated with Professor Ken Judge from the University’s School for Health and Professor Steve Platt from the University of Edinburgh.

“It accounts for more than half of the excess risk of premature death between the highest and lowest socio-economic groups in the UK.

“Our study shows that the NHS stop smoking services are helping to reduce the health gap between rich and poor, which is good news for the overall health of the nation.

“However, the contribution of stop smoking services to achieving ambitious government targets to reduce inequalities in health is likely to be modest.

“It is important that wider tobacco control measures, in particular successful implementation of the recent ban on smoking in public places, and rises in tobacco taxes, are pursued if more significant reductions in smoking-related inequalities are to be achieved. “

NHS stop smoking services were established in 1999 to help smokers to quit. They offer smokers counselling from trained advisers, one to one or in groups, plus access to cessation medications such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).

The study, published this week in the journal Tobacco Control, used data from 1.5 million smokers who were treated by NHS stop smoking services in the three-year period between April 2003 and March 2006.

It compared data from smokers who accessed services in officially designated disadvantaged areas (called Spearhead areas) compared with other parts of England.

The study found that although quit rates were slightly lower for smokers from Spearhead areas (52.6 per cent at four weeks compared with 57.9 per cent elsewhere) services were treating them in larger numbers than their more affluent neighbours (16.7 per cent of smokers in Spearhead areas were treated, compared with 13.4 per cent elsewhere).

The overall effect was that a higher proportion of smokers in the more disadvantaged areas were successful in quitting (8.8 per cent) than those in more affluent areas (7.8 per cent).

Bauld, L, Judge, K and Platt, S (2007) Assessing the impact of smoking cessation services on reducing health inequalities in England: observational study, Tobacco Control, 16, 6, 400-404. Please click here.

The University of Bath is one of the UK’s leading universities, with an international reputation for quality research and teaching. In 15 subject areas the University of Bath is rated in the top ten in the country.

University of Bath

New York City Provides No-Cost Condoms, HIV Tests To Elderly In Effort To Prevent Spread Of Virus

The New York City Department for the Aging is providing no-cost condoms and HIV tests to the city’s elderly population in an effort to prevent the spread of the virus throughout the group, the AP/Forbes reports. According to Bernard Branson, associate director for laboratory diagnostics in the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention at CDC, people ages 50 to 64 accounted for 14% of new HIV diagnoses in 2005, and people ages 65 and older accounted for about 2% of diagnoses.

According to a study conducted last year by the AIDS Community Research Initiative of America, the majority of people living with HIV/AIDS in New York City will be over age 50 within the next 10 years. Edwin Mendez-Santiago, New York City’s commissioner of aging, said, “Often, older people do not concern themselves with HIV and AIDS because they assume that they are not at risk, and that can be a tragic mistake.” In an effort to promote HIV prevention and education among the elderly, the New York City Council has budgeted $1 million, the AP/Forbes reports.

Dan Tietz, executive director of the AIDS research initiative, said HIV education is needed at New York City senior centers, where the average age is about 70, because “we know that people are still having sex well past 65.”

According to the AP/Forbes, smaller campaigns aimed at the elderly also are under way in other cities, including Baltimore. Nancy Orel, a professor of gerontology at Bowling Green State University is organizing a workshop for seniors that will provide no-cost condoms and HIV tests (Matthews, AP/Forbes, 7/25).

Reprinted with kind permission from kaisernetwork. You can view the entire Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report, search the archives, or sign up for email delivery at kaisernetwork/dailyreports/healthpolicy. The Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report is published for kaisernetwork, a free service of The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. © 2005 Advisory Board Company and Kaiser Family Foundation. All rights reserved.

After Creatimng A Beating Animal Heart In A Laboratory, U Of Minnesota Finalizes License Agreement To Form Start-Up Company Based On Taylor’s Research

A major step in commercializing the groundbreaking research of Dr. Doris Taylor was achieved recently when the University of Minnesota signed an exclusive, global license agreement with Miromatrix Medical Inc. Dr. Taylor’s research garnered worldwide attention in 2008 when her team announced that it had created a beating animal heart in her laboratory.

The technology licensed to Miromatrix holds the promise of one day enabling the replacement of entire human organs with non-transplantable organs, harvested from either animals or donors, which are stripped of their cells and recellularized with cells from the recipient or compatible donor cells.

“This is a major step forward for our technology commercialization efforts,” said Tim Mulcahy, the University’s vice president for research. “We took a methodical approach to this start-up and licensing agreement due to the tremendous potential of Dr. Taylor’s research which, we believe, holds the potential to launch an entirely new industry on the scale of the medical device industry.”

The agreement, negotiated by the university’s Office for Technology Commercialization, includes equity for the university as well as future royalty and sublicensing fees.

“Miromatrix intends to commercialize a series of products based upon Dr. Taylor’s platform as efficiently as possible, utilizing our own internal development as well as external collaborations,” said CEO Robert Cohen. “Dr. Taylor’s close involvement with the company will be tremendously beneficial as we ramp up this development effort.”

Cohen joined Miromatrix as CEO in mid-November 2009. He was vice president of business and technology development at St. Jude Medical, and a former CEO of Travanti Pharma Inc. and Advanced Circulatory Systems, Inc., after holding top positions with the Pfizer Hospital Products Group and Sulzer Medica. Once Cohen joined the company, he and the University worked quickly to iron out the business and legal terms in the license agreement.

According to Cohen, Miromatrix expects to complete its initial round of financing in the next few months.

For background about researcher Doris Taylor and a video about creating a heart in the lab.:

Patty Mattern
University of Minnesota

A Joint Statement From UNISON, The GMB And Unite In Support Of The Swine Flu Vaccination For Eligible Frontline Social Care Workers, UK

“The millions of people who benefit from the care and support that social care workers provide day in, day out see you as one of their most important assets and we are committed to protecting you and your families during the current swine flu pandemic.

“Many of the people you care for and support could become seriously ill if they catch swine flu. We fully support the swine flu vaccination programme – it will reduce the risk to staff, protect their colleagues and families and those they care for and support and help sustain services during the pandemic. The vaccination programme covers councils’ directly managed eligible frontline social care workers, as well as eligible independent sector workers and personal assistants to people receiving direct payments.

“It’s important that staff can make an informed decision about the vaccination and social care organisations will provide you with information to enable you to do this. The vaccine has been thoroughly tested and is entirely voluntary. We call on social care organisations to ensure that all eligible staff are given suitable and reasonable access to the vaccination during working hours to protect themselves, their families and those they care for and support from swine flu.

“While we recognise that the decision to be vaccinated is a personal matter, we encourage staff to protect themselves with the swine flu vaccine, in addition to the seasonal flu immunisation. It is your best defence against flu this winter.”


Feeling Blue? Talk To Your GP, UK

Age UK Publishes Key New Depression resource for Older People.

Age UK has launched a new interactive booklet called ‘Feeling Blue?’ to provide help and guidance to people tackling depression in later life.

More than a quarter of people over 65 suffer from depression (1), but many don’t get the help or treatment they need. Two thirds of older people with depression have never discussed it with their GP (2); some do not raise it because of the stigma attached to mental illness or because they feel that their GPs do not take them seriously. Many older people don’t recognise that depression is a problem GPs can treat, or simply dismiss it as a ‘normal’ part of ageing.

To help people overcome these barriers, the free ‘Feeling Blue?’ booklet contains the stories of two women, Iris and Christine, who describe their experience of depression and how they were able to overcome the illness with the help of their GP.

Iris said: “I felt that I was a bad person because I had had thoughts. I didn’t have the energy to go through another day. Sheila (an Age UK volunteer) explained to me that I have an illness and I should see a doctor. Sheila came with me to a GP surgery. I am now much better because the GP treated my depression.”

In her equally moving story Christine narrates: “Three people who were important to me died within one year-my mum, my best friend and my partner. Everybody expected me to be strong and I was trying my best. I was saying to myself everyday: I can do it, I can do it. The Doctor said I had depression before I understood that that is what it was. She said it is OK if I can’t cope and she helped me to get over this period.”

The booklet also provides a guide to spotting the signs of depression and some useful tips about discussing depression with your GP. It also encourages people to write down the thoughts and behaviours that have been causing problems, questions to ask the GP and the advice the GP has given.

Age UK has also produced a life sized cardboard cut out of Christine to display the booklets. The charity is appealing to GP surgeries, community organisations, hospitals and libraries to display and distribute the booklets. Posters are also available. The booklet is also available to download here.

Michelle Mitchell, Charity Director at Age UK said: “Depression affects over a quarter of over 65s, yet it can be an easily treatable illness that is often aggravated by the stigma attached to it. We hope this booklet will break down the barriers around depression and help people take steps to get the help they need. But to achieve this, we need your help to ensure the booklet gets to those people who need it. We appeal to GPs, health professionals and community organisations to order the booklet today.”


1. Depression affects 22% of men and 28% of women aged 65 or over (Health Survey for England 2005: Health of Older People, IC NHS 2007)

2. UK Inquiry into Mental Health and Well-Being in Later Life

3. How to order: simply send an email to paadminageuk telling us where you are emailing from, how many booklets and posters you need and whether you want a display unit.

Source :
Age UK

Biocompatibles Press Announcement

Biocompatibles International plc is pleased to announce that The International Neuroscience Institute (INI), Hannover today held a press conference which covered the following:

- Milestone in Medical Treatment
- First ever Treatment of Stroke Patient with Stem Cell Therapy Product
- International Neuroscience Institute Hannover developed novel neurosurgical Technique for the Transplantation of Stem Cells to the Brain

The International Neuroscience Institute (INI), Hannover is pleased to announce that the first patient has been treated in the first ever clinical trial for the treatment of stroke with a stem cell product.

On October 15th a 49 year old male was admitted to a community hospital and diagnosed with a haemorrhagic stroke. The patient was stabilised and provided informed consent for the treatment of surgery to relieve the pressure on the brain combined with stem cell therapy. The patient was under the care of Professor Thomas Brinker from the INI. The surgical procedure was successfully conducted at INI by Priv. Doz. Dr. Amir Samii.

The patient was treated as part of a twenty patient clinical trial approved by the Paul Erlich Institute, the regulatory institute of the Ministry of Health, and approved by the ethics committee.

The patient made a good recovery from the surgery and there are clear signs of improvement from his condition prior to surgery. He has now been discharged from hospital. Professor Brinker commented: “We see a path of recovery as good as this only in the minority of patients, so it is an encouraging start. It is most important that we found definitively no side effects from the treatment.”

Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the elderly population in the developed world. The incidence rate has been reported as 145 per 100,000. Hemorrhagic stroke is responsible for ~15 to 20% of all stroke and it is the least treatable form of stroke. It is associated with the highest morbidity and mortality rate of all stroke with only 44% of affected patients surviving the first 30 days. Only 20% of these survivors regain functional independence. The cascade of events starts with the sudden rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, causing haemorrhage and pressure inside the skull. Surgery may be used to relieve the pressure; but the haemorrhage causes a longer-term process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and it is this that causes the lasting neurological damage.

The CellBeads™ are delivered directly to the injury site during the surgery. They are programmed to deliver CM1, a proprietary version of a naturally occurring protein, GLP-1, which has been shown to have powerful anti-apoptotic effects. The delivery mechanism is a cluster of human adult mesenchymal stem cells obtained from a healthy donor and encapsulated in alginate beads. The cells are genetically engineered to produce the protein, which is delivered continuously, directly to the injury site. The alginate beads protect the stem cells from the body’s immune system, which would otherwise destroy the foreign cells. CellBeads™ are transplanted within a retrievable mesh device and are removed completely after a treatment period of 14 days. Retrieval of the implant prevents possible long-term side effects from the transplanted cells.

Twenty patients will be treated in this Phase I/II trial. The trial’s primary end-point is safety; and data will be gathered on a number of indicators of efficacy. If successful, a larger, international trial will be designed with a view to securing a product licence in the 2012-15 time-frame.

This is the first trial authorised by regulators and hospital ethics committees for the treatment of stroke with a stem cell therapy product1.

This programme has been supported by grants from the German government, from the State of Bavaria, and from the International Neurobionics Foundation; and is sponsored by CellMed AG, the manufacturers of the CellBeads™ product used in the treatment.

Professor Madjid Samii, Founder and President of the INI, commented “I am very proud of INI’s involvement with this exciting programme. Stem cell science rightly attracts a lot of public interest but we have to show that treatments are safe, effective and reproducible; and that process is now well under way.

1 Stem cell therapy using the patients’ own cells has been described, but by definition this treatment is not a product; and there are no published clinical papers describing the results of any trial.

Biocompatibles International plc is a leading medical technology company in the field of drug-device combination products, operating through three businesses. The International Division conducts the marketing of Biocompatibles’ approved products – Biocompatibles’ Drug-Eluting Bead products which are used in the treatment of primary and secondary liver cancers and BrachySciences’ radiation-delivering seeds which are used in the treatment of prostate cancer.

The Drug Delivery Division and CellMed are engaged in new product development and licensing. The Drug Delivery Division is developing new products for oncology and other indications, based on the company’s core drug delivery technologies. CellMed is developing a Bead product for cosmetic dermatology and a Drug-Eluting Bead product for the treatment of stroke, based on proprietary stem cell technology.

Our strategic partners include Angiodynamics Inc, Medtronic Inc, Merz AG and Terumo Corporation.

Biocompatibles International plc

Statins Improve The Results Of Vascular Surgery

Don Poldermans, M.D., Professor Erasmus, MC Internist Erasmus at the Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands, conducted a
study to show that lipid-lowering therapy would stabilize coronary plaques and improve postoperative outcome. Dr.
Poldermans hypothesized that the effect was anti-inflammatory in nature as opposed to directly related to lipid lowering

In a double blind, placebo-controlled trial, statin naГЇve patients were randomly assigned to receive either 80 mg fluvastatin
extended release or a matched placebo starting 37 days prior to surgery.

To assess the influence on inflammation markers by
statin therapy interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein were measured at randomization and immediately prior to surgery. 250 patients
were assigned to fluvastatin and 247 to placebo. Interleukin-6 and c-reactive protein concentrations remained stable in the placebo
group and decreased in the fluvastatin group.

The incidence myocardial infarction in fluvastatin and placebo allocated groups
respectively was 10.8 percent vs 19.0 percent and the incidence of the composite cardiac death and myocardial infarction was 4.8
percent vs 10.2 percent respectively. Fluvastatin therapy was associated with a reduction of inflammation activity and improved
postoperative cardiac outcome in elective vascular surgery patients.

VEITH SYMPOSIUM – New York, November 19th to 23rd

Now in its fourth decade, VEITH SYMPOSIUM provides vascular surgeons, interventional radiologists, interventional cardiologists and other vascular specialists with a unique and exciting format to learn the most current information about what is new and important in the treatment of vascular disease. The 5-day event features rapid-fire presentations from world renowned vascular specialists with emphasis on the latest advances, changing concepts in diagnosis and management, pressing controversies and new techniques.

VEITHsymposium is sponsored by Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.


Pauline T. Mayer

Pollution-Curbing Policies Possible Following Improved Air Quality During Beijing Olympics

The air in Beijing during the 2008 Olympics was cleaner than the previous year’s, due to aggressive efforts by the Chinese government to curtail traffic, increase emissions standards and halt construction in preparation for the games, according to a Cornell study.

Led by Max Zhang, assistant professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering, the study indicates that such measures as regulating traffic density and encouraging public transportation can have a significant impact on local air quality.

“We hope our study can help or advise local regulators and policymakers to adopt long-term sustainable emission controls to improve air quality,” Zhang said. “That’s our mission.”

Published online recently in the journal Atmospheric Environment, the study was based on air quality readings before, during and after the Olympics. Leading up to the Olympics, the Chinese government barred more than 300,000 heavy-emission vehicles — mostly trucks — from the roads. The city also implemented rules in which only some people were allowed to drive on certain days based on their license plate numbers. As a result, close to 2 million vehicles were pulled from the roads. Other mandates involved halting construction and decreasing the use of coal in favor of natural gas for electricity.

In 2007 and 2008, the researchers collected air quality data from equipment installed at two elevations on a building in the heart of Beijing.

They also tracked emissions from vehicles in different areas of the city by following randomly selected cars and trucks in a minivan equipped with sensitive instruments for detecting carbon particles, including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and black carbon, or soot.

Among the researchers’ conclusions: Black carbon pollution is significantly greater at ground level than at higher elevations, and diesel trucks are a major source of black carbon emission during the summer in Beijing. These particles are not only harmful to the lungs, but are also known to be a global warming compound, Zhang said.

The researchers found that car emissions of black carbon were down 33 percent in 2008 compared with their 2007 readings. Carbon dioxide decreased 47 percent, and ultrafine carbon-based particles — those that measure less than 100 nanometers — decreased 78 percent.

The sharp drops were most likely due to a new emission standard implemented in Beijing in 2008, in which all new registered vehicles as well as gasoline and diesel fuel engines were required to achieve emissions standards equivalent to European Union regulations. A similar standard was mandated starting in June 2008 for 20,000 buses and 66,000 taxies. The improved fuel quality probably enhanced the performance of engines and catalytic converters, the researchers reported.

“We are showing what the city can do if they are determined to improve air quality,” Zhang said.

The study, whose first author was graduate student Xing Wang, was funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Cornell’s Jeffrey Sean Lehman Fund for Scholarly Exchange with China.

By Anne Ju

Blaine Friedlander

Cornell University

Intravenous Gene Transfer Reduces And Stabilizes Arterial Plaque

A plaque-fighting gene – studied in various forms by researchers at the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute for 18 years – has now been transferred intravenously to lab mice bred to model atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) in humans. Studies show the gene transfer reduced and stabilized plaque and decreased inflammation, key factors in cutting the risk of heart disease.

P.K. Shah, M.D., the director of the Division of Cardiology and the Oppenheimer Atherosclerosis Research Center, has studied the apolipoprotein A-I Milano gene since it was discovered in 1992 in a small number of individuals in northern Italy who appear to be protected from cholesterol-related heart disease.

He and his colleagues will describe their latest findings in an oral presentation, “Favorable Modulation of Atherosclerosis and Monocyte Phenotype by Intravenous AAV 8 Mediated Apo A-I Milano Gene Transfer in Mice,” Wednesday, Nov. 17 from 2 to 2:15 p.m. at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. (Session 17407/AOS 302.01.)

This will be one of several presentations made by Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute researchers.

Diabetes is a predictor of repeat hospitalization for heart failure treatment

More than half of patients admitted to the hospital for heart failure treatment were readmitted at least once for follow-up care within 90 days, according to a study conducted at the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute. People with diabetes – and especially diabetics with a type of heart failure that diminishes the heart’s pumping ability – needed more readmissions than others.

Recognizing the high number of readmissions and the higher risk of patients with diabetes, the researchers suggest further study to better define predictors of readmission and develop interventions that will enable patients to avoid repeat hospitalizations.

They will discuss their findings at a poster presentation, “Diabetes Mellitus is a Predictor of Repeat Hospitalization for Heart Failure,” Wednesday, Nov. 17 from 9:30 to 11 a.m. (Session 12806/2050.)

A change seen on ECGs may signal early rhythm problem leading to sudden cardiac death

A change detected on resting electrocardiograms may help identify which heart disease patients are at higher risk for sudden cardiac death, according to cardiologists carrying out one of the largest ongoing population studies on sudden cardiac arrest. The studies are led by Sumeet S. Chugh, M.D., the section chief of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and one of the top experts on sudden death.

ECGs (EKGs) show the heart’s electrical impulses and rhythms over time, with sections of the graph representing parts of the heartbeat cycle. Waves of an entire cycle are generally identified by the letters P, Q, R, S, and T. The researchers noted that when one specific interval (from the peak to the end of the T wave) is increased by 18 milliseconds, risk of sudden cardiac death is tripled.

More details will be given in an oral presentation, “T-peak to T-end Interval: A Novel ECG Predictor of Sudden Death in the General Population,” from 3 to 3:15 p.m. Wednesday, Nov. 17. (Session 18449/AOS 405.03.)

Citation: The American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2010, Nov. 14-17, Chicago.


Cedars-Sinai Medical Center