Male Circumcision Could Cut Millions Of Future HIV Infections

Circumcision reduces HIV infection risk by 60% in heterosexual men, it could reduce the number of HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa by over six million over the next two decades, says an international team of researchers led by Catherine Hankins, Chief Scientific Adviser, United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Over three million lives could be saved in sub-Saharan Africa alone, they say.

You can read about this study in the journal PLoS Medicine.

Data from studies in 2005 was used to calculate HIV infection rates among areas where most men are circumcised and areas where most men are not. The information was then used to predict future infection rates and totals. By using a mathematical model, the researchers then predicted how many men in Sub-Saharan Africa would be infected with HIV over the next twenty years if they were all circumcised.

If all men in Sub-Saharan Africa were circumcised, they calculated that…

During the first 10 years:
300,000 deaths would be avoided

During the second ten years:
2,700,000 more deaths would be avoided
3,700,000 infections would be prevented

Although men would benefit the most, women would also benefit as a consequence, say the scientists.

Catherine Hankins said “The big message from the paper is that there is a tremendous potential for male circumcision to have an effect on the HIV epidemic, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Safety, acceptability and cost of male circumcision will also be important beyond just modelling this impact, because if you do not get increased uptake you will not see any of these effects.”

According to Hankins, prevalence of male circumcision is high in west and central Africa and low in southern and eastern Africa. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS is lower in west and central Africa and high in southern and eastern Africa.

It is crucial, say many experts, that before embarking on any voluntary circumcision campaign, that people understand there is still a serious risk of infection. The best way to avoid infection is either by abstaining or using a condom.

The Potential Impact of Male Circumcision on HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa
PLoS Medicine
Brian G. Williams, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Eleanor Gouws, Catherine Hankins, Wayne M. Getz, John Hargrove, Isabelle de Zoysa, Christopher Dye, Bertran Auvert
Click Here to see Abstract and Article online

The work of JOLS and WMG was supported by NIH-NIDA grant R01-DA10135 and a James S. McDonnell Foundation 21st Century Science Initiative grant. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Asthma Sufferers Should Be Cautious Of Swine Flu

As news of the swine flu situation develops, it is important for those with asthma or other respiratory conditions to be aware of the basic facts about influenza and how it is spread, according to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

“The typical influenza vaccine does not provide immunity to swine flu,” said Executive Vice President Thomas B. Casale, MD, FAAAAI. “As with other influenza viruses, this virus typically attacks the respiratory tract. So if you have a chronic respiratory condition like asthma, it can take a turn for the worse, exacerbating your asthma.”

While people with asthma or other chronic lung conditions are at a higher risk for developing complications from influenza, it is important to be attentive to the presence of symptoms but not to panic. Catching the symptoms early is key because the antiviral drugs used to combat swine flu are most effective if started as soon as possible, and might not work if administered more than 48 hours after becoming ill.

The symptoms of swine flu include fever, tiredness, lack of appetite and coughing. Some people with the virus have also reported a runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

“Any individual exhibiting signs of swine flu should call his or her physician to discuss those symptoms. A doctor is best prepared to advise whether or not an in-person visit should be made,” noted Casale. Also, patients should avoid contact with other individuals as much as possible and practice good hygiene, especially hand washing.

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology represents allergists, asthma specialists, clinical immunologists, allied health professionals and others with a special interest in the research and treatment of allergic disease. Established in 1943, the AAAAI has nearly 6,500 members in the United States, Canada and 60 other countries.

For useful tips to help reduce flu transmission, visit aaaai.

Locate an allergist/immunologist online at aaaai/physref.

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & ImmunologyFurther information on Swine Flu

See a Map Of H1N1 Outbreaks
See our Mexico Swine Flu Blog

On Heels Of Swine Flu Outbreak, ILSI-Biomed 2009 To Feature Local AndInternational Companies Developing Universal Flu Vaccines

Kenes Exhibitions and ILSI, the organizing bodies of the ILSI-Biomed Israel Conference , Israel’s premier life sciences event, announced today that this year’s conference, set to take place June 15-17 in Tel-Aviv, will introduce conference participants to companies developing universal vaccines and methods of delivering such vaccines, in an effort to protect humankind from flu strains such as swine flu.

“It is crucial that Biomed Israel, as a leading life science conference, consistently feature issues having the greatest impact on the world,” said Ruti Alon, ILSI Chairperson. “We are fortunate that the top innovators in the area of flu vaccines and vaccine delivery platforms are participating in this year’s event and we look forward to introducing their technologies to all the conference participants.”

Among the companies who will participate at ILSI-Biomed Israel will be BiondVax Pharmaceuticals, Inc. a firm developing a revolutionary vaccination that will provide universal multi-season/multi-strain protection against human flu virus strains.

“Outbreaks of strains such as swine flu are exactly the reason why we are developing our vaccine. While vaccinations will cost, the global treatment of a pandemic would be a much more expensive proposition, especially given the global economic challenges we have today,” said Dr. Ron Babecoff, DVM, Founder, President & CEO of BiondVax. “ILSI-Biomed Israel is an important venue for Israeli companies like BiondVax to show the world how we in Israel are playing a role in helping people life longer, healthier lives.”

The three-day conference will feature executives from leading companies such as Bristol-Myers Squibb, Johnson & Johnson, Allergan, Avelere Health, Covidien, Astellas and many others, as well as many dynamic biotech start-ups from around the world, including Oramed Pharmaceuticals, a company that is developing proprietary technology for oral delivery of drugs currently administered only by injection.

“Currently, Oramed has focused its energy on the delivery of insulin for diabetes, but there is no reason why our system can’t also be used to deliver other drugs, such as a universal flu vaccine,” said Nadav Kidron, Oramed’s Chief Executive Officer. “By removing the necessity for needles and injections, we will provide a painless option for the delivery of the flu vaccine, something especially important for children and seniors.”

The ILSI-Biomed Conference is a joint venture between the Israel Life Sciences Industry (ILSI) and Kenes International. The ILSI is composed of medical device, biotechnology, pharmaceutical and medical service companies, universities and private research institutions, and industry service providers aiming to research, develop and advocate policies and actions that promote biomedical science, biotechnology and medical device innovation in the State of Israel. Kenes International, the founding organization of the Biomed Conference, is a leader in the field of global congress organization and association management services.

Further information on Swine Flu

See a Map Of H1N1 Outbreaks
See our Mexico Swine Flu Blog

A Research On “Craving” Or The Intense Desire For Tobacco Establishes The Basis For Addiction Control

A research team from the University of Granada has carried out a study on the psychological process that triggers the “craving” or intense desire for tobacco, a study that could establish the bases to determine the brain mechanisms that activate this state and how to control them.

Miguel ГЃngel MuГ±oz GarcГ­a, from the Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment of the University of Granada has carried out this study, under the direction of the Professors Jaime Vila Castelar and MВЄ Carmen FernГЎndez Santaella.

“Craving” is an expression used to define an uncontrollable desire for the administration or consumption of an addictive substance. It is usually used in situations of alcohol or nicotine dependence and it is considered as a pathology that affects cognitive resources, as it has an obsessive component.

The researchers of the University of Granada analysed, with the help of a device, 180 regular takers of an addictive substance (cocaine, in this case), to study the emotional mechanisms triggering the addiction for the substance. This study has helped to establish the behavioural mechanisms in cocaine addiction, and consists of the emotional control of different consumption situations.

These results have been the basis of a series of studies with smokers, in withdrawal for 8 hours, to measure the physiological and emotional variables present in withdrawal symptoms using a machine (a polygraph) to estimate the emotional mechanisms responsible for the addiction to that substance. The smokers were shown several images (48) connected with situations that produce desire (related with leisure, free time, coffee…), analysing the heart´s defensive cardiac response produced as well as the startle response.
Lastly, brain modifications associated with emotional responses of frustration and impulsiveness in smokers in withdrawal were studied. This system was also used for regular smokers.

Miguel ГЃngel MuГ±oz GarcГ­a states that this research has studied for the first time behavioural mechanisms involved in the tobacco craving process determining the brain areas and body responses connected with the compulsive behaviour provoked by tobacco.


Dr. Miguel ГЃngel MuГ±oz GarcГ­a. Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment, University of Granada.

Source: Miguel ГЃngel MuГ±oz GarcГ­a

Universidad de Granada

Frequent Nighttime Urination Associated With Increased Mortality Risk

Nighttime urination (nocturia) is a predictor of mortality in patients of all ages, according to two new studies being presented during the 105th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Urological Association in San Francisco.

Nocturia, defined as two or more episodes of urination per night, increases with age, and is associated with a number of co-morbidities, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and antidepressant use. The data being presented reflect both the younger and older populations, and the association of nighttime voiding with mortality.

The first study, conducted by researchers at the New England Research Institutes in Watertown, MA, showed that, even after adjusting for recognized co-morbidities associated with nighttime voiding, both men and women with nocturia had an increased risk of mortality compared to those without nocturia. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, conducted between 1988 and 1994) researchers found an association of greater magnitude between nocturia and mortality in men and women ages 20-64 rather than in the 65 years and older age group. An increased number of voiding episodes was associated with an increase in mortality risk. This study suggests that development of related comorbid conditions, unrecognized medical conditions, and/or sleep disruption could be contributing factors, and that all patients with nocturia should consider talking with their physicians.

The second study further solidifies the association between nocturia and mortality in the elderly. A research team from Japan, that just last year determined that nocturia was associated with an increased risk of death in the elderly, has now conducted a study showing that as nighttime urination becomes more frequent, the risk of mortality increases for the elderly. Investigators conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of 788 subjects, aged 70-97 years, living in an urban district of north Japan and cross-referenced that information with data from the national health insurance system over the course of five years. Even after adjusting the data to accommodate several factors that might impact mortality risk, the association between the frequency of nocturia and the risk of mortality persisted.

“These studies show that not only does the association between nocturia and mortality exist, but it does not only affect the elderly,” said AUA spokesman Tomas L. Griebling, MD, MPH. “Patients of any age suffering from nocturia should talk to a physician and consider making sure there is a clear and lighted path to the restroom at night to prevent injuries and falls.”

American Urological Association

Citywide Smoking Ban Contributes To Significant Decrease In Maternal Smoking, Pre-term Births

New research released today takes a look at birth outcomes and maternal smoking, building urgency for more states and cities to join the nationwide smoke-free trend that has accelerated in recent years. According to the new data, strong smoke-free policies can improve fetal outcomes by significantly reducing the prevalence of maternal smoking.

The study, which was presented today at the American Public Health Association’s 138th Annual Meeting & Exposition in Denver, compared maternal smoking prevalence in one Colorado city where a smoking ban has already been implemented to that of a neighboring city where there is no ordinance.

Researchers from the University of Colorado School of Pharmacy collected data from mothers residing in Pueblo, Colo., before and after a citywide smoking ban took effect. Results show a 23 percent decrease in the odds of preterm births and a 37 percent decrease in the odds of maternal smoking in Pueblo following the ban. Birth outcomes in El Paso County, Colo., however, showed no such drop during the same time period. Findings in this first-ever study in United States reflect similar findings as national data from Dublin, Ireland.

The study suggests that smoking bans have a significant and immediate positive impact on the health of infants and mothers. Pre-term babies stand a greater likelihood of experiencing cardiovascular issues later in life.

“This research proves that smoking is an irrefutable risk factor for expectant mothers who are acutely more affected,” said Associate Professor Dr. Robert Page at the University of Coloardo, Schools of Pharmacy and Medicne, and lead researcher on the study, who presented the findings. “The good news is that implementing strong tobacco control policy can protect even the most vulnerable from the deadly consequences of smoking.”


American Public Health Association

Implanted Sleep Device Shows Promising Early Results

Apnex Medical announced that preliminary data from a first-in-man clinical study showed significant improvements in sleep for people suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Apnex HGNS™ System, developed by the St. Paul-based company, is a device designed to treat OSA, which is a serious life-threatening illness characterized by fragmented sleep and excessive day-time sleepiness. The HGNS System activates an upper airway muscle during sleep, which opens the airway, allowing patients to breathe and remain asleep.

“These results demonstrate the potential benefits the HGNS System could provide to patients who do not tolerate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy,” said Peter Eastwood, Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow at the West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Professor at the School of Anatomy and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, and an investigator with this study. “In most patients, the Apnex HGNS System reduced the severity of their OSA condition, allowing them to sleep better and feel better.”

Three- and six-month data from the Australian first-in-man study evaluating the safety and efficacy of the HGNS System were presented by Dr. Eastwood, as part of the session, “New Treatment Approaches for Lung Disease: Late Breaking Abstracts,” at the American Thoracic Society (ATS) 2010 International Conference. The findings show the HGNS System reduced the severity of OSA by an average of over 50%, as measured by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). AHI measures the number of times per hour during sleep that a person either stops breathing or has restricted breathing. Patients also experienced significant improvements in symptoms, as measured by multiple quality of life surveys. Patients tolerated the treatment well, with an average of 6.5 hours of use each night. There were no device failures during the study.

“These data give us confidence that the HGNS System works, patients use it, and patients sleep better because of it,” said Robert Atkinson, Apnex Medical president and chief executive officer. “They have improved oxygen levels during sleep and are waking up less, which we believe can lead to better overall health. We are learning a tremendous amount about this new therapy, which we believe will lead to even better outcomes through therapy adjustment and patient selection. We are excited about our on-going clinical trials in the United States and Australia, the results of which will support future applications for commercial approval.”

About Apnex Medical and HGNS System

Apnex Medical was founded in 2006 with a mission to pioneer medical innovations to improve the health of people with sleep disordered breathing. The company has developed a proprietary medical device for the treatment of OSA.

The Apnex Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation (HGNS) System is an implanted medical device that activates an upper airway muscle to prevent the tongue from blocking the airway during sleep. It is fully automatic and can be implanted during a simple surgical procedure. After it is implanted, the device is programmed to meet the unique needs of each patient. The device automatically turns on when the patient is sleeping and turns off when the patient is awake.

About OSA

According to the World Health Organization, approximately 100 million people worldwide have OSA. In the United States, symptomatic OSA affects 1 in 4 men and 1 in 9 women. It most often occurs when the airway muscles fail to keep the airway open during sleep. Untreated OSA increases the risk of death; as well as stroke, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, heart failure and diabetes. It causes fragmented sleep, which leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, resulting in an increased risk of accidents and lost productivity. Current OSA treatments are not always successful or well tolerated. The Apnex HGNS System is designed to provide an alternative treatment for OSA that addresses these problems.

About US Clinical Study

The Apnex HGNS System is currently being evaluated in a clinical study in the United States.

About American Thoracic Society

The American Thoracic Society (ATS) is a non-profit, international, professional and scientific society for respiratory, critical care and sleep medicine. The ATS is committed to the prevention and treatment of respiratory disease through research, education, patient care and advocacy. The long-range goal of the ATS is to decrease morbidity and mortality from respiratory, critical care and sleep disorders and life threatening acute illnesses in people of all ages. In keeping with these goals, ATS interacts with both national and international organizations which have similar goals.

CAUTION: The Apnex HGNS System is an investigational device and is limited by Federal Law to investigational use.


Apnex Medical and HGNS are trademarks of Apnex Medical, Inc.

© Apnex Medical, Inc. 2010. All rights reserved.

Source: Apnex Medical, Inc

AAKP Testifies Before House Ways And Means Committee On Anemia Management Care, USA

On Tuesday, June 26, 2007, the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) testified before the House Ways & Means Subcommittee on Health about ensuring kidney patients receive safe and appropriate anemia management care, along with other important patient quality of care issues.

Subcommittee Chairman Pete Stark (D-CA) scheduled the hearing to listen to testimony on safety concerns regarding the dosing of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs), variations in utilization of ESAs across providers and reimbursement issues. “My priority for Medicare ESRD policy is to ensure patient safety while also protecting taxpayers from unnecessary expenditures,” stated Chairman Stark in announcing the hearing. “Health risks associated with higher doses and well-documented flaws in a payment system that encourages higher dosing highlights that this issue is ripe for re-examination. We must do better for our ESRD beneficiaries and for the taxpayers.”

AAKP Executive Director and CEO, Kris Robinson, told the committee AAKP supports achieving a hemoglobin level of 11 to 12 grams per deciliter, as indicated by the FDA label for ESAs, but added, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ (CMS) monitoring policy is somewhat out of sync with where the FDA is and where the mainstream medical community is.

“Although each case is different and there will always be outliers, from a patient perspective there is very little medical reason for a patient to remain at levels above 13 grams, especially in light of the current literature citing safety issues.” AAKP was the only patient group invited before the hearing. Robinson went on to stress AAKP’s strong belief that a physician and patient must be permitted to decide a care plan best suited for that patient.

Studies show ESAs dosing levels increased dramatically between 2000 and 2004, with weekly averages near 4,000 units. Medicare spending for ESAs increased by 17 percent from 2003 to 2004 alone, up to $1.8 billion. Spending on ESAs per person per month is now nearly one-half of the monthly cost for dialysis.

“The hearing was sort of a full circle for AAKP,” says AAKP President Bobbi Wager. “Thirty-five years ago, then AAKP Vice President Shep Glazer testified before the House Ways and Means Committee while dialyzing. A year later, legislation was passed to ensure dialysis patients receive Medicare coverage to pay for their treatment. We are proud the Committee recognizes AAKP was then and is today, the leading patient organization.”

Robinson ended her testimony by leaving the Subcommittee with recommendations for quality enhancements for patients. They include:

– Medicare pay for patient education prior to ESRD
– Establishing a standard of training for dialysis technicians
– Medicare coverage for home dialysis

To read AAKP’s testimony before the House Ways and Means Subcommittee on Health, go to the AAKP Web site, aakp.

AAKP is the voluntary, patient organization, which for more than 35 years, has been dedicated to improving the lives of fellow kidney patients and their families by helping them deal with the physical, emotional and social impact of kidney disease. The programs offered by AAKP inform and inspire patients and their families to better understand their condition, adjust more readily to their circumstances, and assume more normal, productive lives in their communities.


Corgenix AspirinWorks(R) Test Recognized In POLYCAP Study At ACC.09

Corgenix Medical Corporation (OTC Bulletin Board: CONX) announced that its AspirinWorks Test was used by investigators in The Indian POLYCAP Study (TIPS) to help determine patients’ response to aspirin and/or statin therapy.

The TIPS trial examined the effect of combinations of aspirin, statin and three blood-pressure-lowering drugs on blood pressure, lipids, heart rate and urinary 11-dehydrohtromboxane B2 (11dTxB2) as measured by the AspirinWorks Test in more than 2,000 individuals.

Results of the randomized, controlled, double-blind study were presented as a late breaking clinical trial March 30 at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) 58th Annual Scientific Sessions in Orlando, Fla. Corgenix is exhibiting its test in Booth No. 1162 during ACC.09.

Overall results showed that the single combination pill was about as effective as taking the five drugs individually and was well tolerated. Trial results also showed that randomization to aspirin therapy resulted in a reduction in 11dTxB2, validating the findings of the previous CHARISMA trial.

“The use of the AspirinWorks Test in this large, groundbreaking trial demonstrates the value of understanding a patient’s individual response to aspirin, and the ability of our test to accurately and consistently determine that response,” said Gordon Ens, Corgenix Director of Clinical Affairs.

The TIPS trial is the largest to date to test the theory that a single, low-cost, easy-to-take “super pill” can be used to reduce cardiovascular risk across a large population as effectively as several individual pills.

The AspirinWorks Test measures urinary 11dhTxB2, identified in the previously published CHARISMA trial as an independent predictor of risk modifiable by aspirin and statin therapy. The AspirinWorks Test is the only FDA-cleared test that measures urinary 11dhTxB2 to accurately determine the effect of aspirin in apparently healthy individuals. 11dhTxB2 is a metabolite of thromboxane A2, the target of aspirin therapy.

The AspirinWorks Test was launched in the U.S. in June 2007 following FDA 510(k) clearance, and it is now available nationwide through major medical laboratories, including Quest Diagnostics, LabCorp and SpectraCell.

Unlike functional platelet tests, which require freshly drawn blood that must be evaluated within at least four hours, the AspirinWorks Test is performed on a random urine sample that can be obtained in any doctor’s office or patient service center, making the test convenient for both physician and patient.

About Corgenix Medical Corporation

Corgenix is a leader in the development and manufacturing of specialized diagnostic kits for immunology disorders, vascular diseases and bone and joint disorders, including the world’s only non-blood-based test for aspirin effect. Corgenix diagnostic products are commercialized for use in clinical laboratories throughout the world. The company currently sells over 50 diagnostic products through a global distribution network and has significant experience advancing products through the FDA process. More information is available at corgenix.

Statements in this press release that are not strictly historical facts are “forward looking” statements (identified by the words “believe”, “estimate”, “project”, “expect” or similar expressions) within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements inherently involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements. Factors that would cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, continued acceptance of the Company’s products and services in the marketplace, competitive factors, changes in the regulatory environment, and other risks detailed in the Company’s periodic report filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The statements in this press release are made as of today, based upon information currently known to management, and the Company does not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements.

Corgenix Medical Corporation

Differentiation Blocked In Tumor Stem Cells

A new comparison of normal stem cells and cancer stem cells reveals that the cancer stem cells are abnormally trapped at an early stage of development. The research, published by Cell Press in the January issue of Cancer Cell, significantly advances the understanding of glioma pathophysiology and provides new directions for design of therapeutic strategies that are targeted to specific types of tumors.

Tumor-initiating cells with stem like properties (TICs) are thought to be a small population of tumor cells that have many characteristics in common with normal stem cells (NSCs) in that they are self-replicating and capable of giving rise to populations of differentiated cells. Previous research has demonstrated that TICs are present in different types of brain tumors, including glioblastomas. Although the TICs share many properties with NSCs, they are known to possess genetic aberrations that support a tumorigenic phenotype.

“Thus far, there have been few, if any, reports demonstrating exactly where along the developmental pathway of tissue-specific stem cell maturation and differentiation tumor stem cells arise, and which, if any, of the intrinsic stem cell signaling pathways are perturbed in tumor stem cells remains largely unknown,” explains Dr. Howard A. Fine from the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. To better understand the development and differentiation pathways that play a significant role in cancer stem cells, Dr. Fine and colleagues isolated TICs from primary human glioblastomas and compared them to human and mouse NSCs at various developmental stages.

The researchers found that the TICs isolated from an adult patient are more similar to early embryonic stem cells than to later embryonic or adult-derived stem cells. Specifically, the TICs appear to be stuck at this early developmental stage, at least in part, due to epigenetic repression of bone morphogenic protein receptor 1B (BMPR1B) expression mediated through a polycomb repressive complex. BMPs are known to mediate proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in NSCs, depending on the stage of cell development and the local environment. Importantly, forced expression of the silenced BMPR1B restored normal differentiation capacity to the isolated TICs, halting further cell division and inducing terminal differentiation.

“Our research provides an example of a temporally deregulated and aberrantly fixed normal stem cell developmental block to differentiation contributing to the pathogenesis of a human tumor. Not only will such insights pave the way for a more thorough understanding of tumor stem cell biology, but they also identify BMPR1B as a promising molecular target and open the potential for targeted therapeutic approaches for agents that can induce terminal differentiation of tumor stem cells,” offers Dr. Fine.


The researchers include Jeongwu Lee, Myung Jin Son, Kevin Woolard, Nicholas M. Donin, Aiguo Li, Chui H. Cheng, Svetlana Kotliarova, Yuri Kotliarov, Jennifer Walling, Susie Ahn, Misuk Kim, Mariam Totonchy, Thomas Cusack, Chibawanye Ene, Hilary Ma, Qin Su, Jean Claude Zenklusen, Wei Zhang, Dragan Maric, and Howard A. Fine of the Neuro-Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health in Bethesda.

This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research.

Lee et al.: “Epigenetic-Mediated Dysfunction of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway Inhibits Differentiation of Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells.” Publishing in Cancer Cell 13, 69-80, January 2008. DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2007.12.005. cancercell/

Source: Cathleen Genova

Cell Press